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Evidence of Carter Ancestors’ Involvement in the Domestic Slave Trade

If you have read some of my other blog posts, you know that I am interested in giving a voice to the people enslaved by my ancestors. I have the advantage of either already having family papers or easily locating manuscript collections dealing with my ancestors since I know their names an where they lived. The tough part sometimes is finding the pieces of paper that list enslaved people by name. Before the pandemic in 2019, I found a source related to some of my Carter ancestors in Virginia, which lists enslaved people by name and connects them to a specific time and place.

In July 2019, I spent a few days researching in the library of the Virginia Museum of History & Culture (VMHC), formerly the Virginia Historical Society, in Richmond, Virginia. To maximize my time, I took digital photos of the items I requested, thinking I would go through the photos at a later date. Two years later…I still haven’t read through most of them, but I remembered that a plantation account book of one of my Carter ancestors had tons of great genealogical information on the enslaved and formerly enslaved who worked on the plantation. It is very possible that many of the names and relationships in this account book cannot be found in other records. I wanted to share some of the photos I took of the account book, but due to copyright, I am not allowed to publish them here without paying VHMC a small fortune. So, I did the next best thing and I have started to transcribe the account book. This blog post is the first step.

Thomas Henry Carter

Thomas Henry Carter (1831–1908), one of my paternal third-great-grandfathers, owned Pampatike, a plantation in King William County, Virginia. Pampatike is located along the Pamunkey River, northeast of Richmond. The library at the VMHC has his account book, as well as many other Carter family papers. According to the account book, Thomas H. Carter, his half-brother, William Page Carter (1836–1913), and their father, Thomas Nelson Carter (1800–1883), decided to invest in land in Louisiana in the late 1850s. Of course, large tracts of land in the South means there will most likely be enslaved people used as the labor force. The Carters sent forty enslaved people to Louisiana from two different plantations in Virginia. As you will see below, twenty-three people were sent south from the plantation in King William County. The elder Carter sent seventeen enslaved people from Clarke County in the northern part of Virginia. My best educated guess, without further research, is that these seventeen people came from Annefield, which was a Carter plantation in Clarke County where this branch of the Carters lived during this time period.

The following is a transcription (exact copy) of the first few pages of the account book (excluding a couple torn pages with scribbles and notes dating from the 1880s):

Partial Transcription of Thomas Henry Carter’s Account Book[1]

[page 4]

Susan E. Roy was born

on 16th January 1833[2]

Ann S. Roy was born

on 6th August 1831[3]

[page 5]

6 gr[?] List of names of servants sent to the

South by Thos Carter.[4]

From Pampatike[5]     age                                                    age

1. Anthony             60                12. Daniel                       55

2. Aggy                  50                13. Tamor                      60

3. Claiborne           24                14. Jim                           24

4. Milly                  20                15. William                     20

5. Fleming             15                16. Margaret                   13

6. John                  12                17. Patsy                         10

7. Norman            10                18. Scilla                          7

8. Robert                8                 19. Matilda                      25

9. Joanna               6                 20. Katy                          3

10. Spenser            3                 21. Nat                           1

11. Henrietta         1                  22. Sarah                         22

                                                23. Hilliard                      1

——————————————————————————

From Clarke[6]          age                                                      age

24. Robin               50               33. George                      10

25. Lucy                40               34. Stephen                     2

26. Dolly               14               35. Baby                          2 months

27. Maria               12               36. Henry                        50

28. Nancy              10               37. Harry                        30

29. Millford            6                38. Cinthia                      22

30. Robert              20               39. Mike                          3

31. Stephen           38               40. Charlotte                   1

32. Peggy               35

23 from Pampatike

17 from Clarke

[page 6]

January 1st 1859.

Statement of a purchase made in Louisiana

by the firm of

Thos Carter[7], Thos H Carter + Wm P Carter[8]

of M T Morrison.[9]  March 30th 1858

1027 acres of land[10]

12 mules

2 horses

10 Oxen

3 Cows

1000 bushels of corn

Farming utensils and Hogs

            whole amounting to                                    $39.737. 50c[11]

            in four payments.

            Cash payment                                             $10000   00c

            2nd payment 1st Jan 1859                              $,3070   83c

            3rd payment 1st Jan 1860                              $13,333. 33c

            4th payment 1st Jan 1861                              $13,333. 33c

            (The first two payments made)

            Of the cash payment

            Thos Carter from sale of state

            stock by Edwin Wortham + Co[12]                 $5443  92c

            Thos H Carter of state stock

            sold by Edwin Wortham + Co $4428.80c

            advanced by the same to make up

            the $10.050.00c (the exchange on New

            Fork draft $50.)                           $177.28

            In the aggregate for this payment by him  $4606. 08c

                                                                             $100.50. 00

            Advanced by Thos H Carter order of

            E Wortham + Co to Baker + Bro. Winchester[13]  $100. 00

            Borrowed by the same from Robt

            Carter[14] + used for transportation of negroes[15]      $500  00

            Making whole amount now

            invested by Thos H Carter                        $5206. 08

            2nd payment made by

            William P Carter                                       $3070. 83

[page 7]

            used by Wm P Carter in trans

            portation of negroes + other ex

            penses                        $479.07c

            Placed to his credit in the

            hands of A D Kelly of New Orleans[16]

                                              $565.12c

            Making the aggregate amount

            invested by Wm Carter                       $4.115  02c

            of this amount $500.00 borrowed

            from Robt Carter. the balance

            his own. rec.d in a  draft from

            Jno Wickham of St Louis.[17]

            To simplify.

                        Invested by

            Thos Carter                                     $5.443. 92c

    By    Thos H Carter                                 $5.206  08c

     “     Wm P Carter                                   $4.115 .02c

                                                                   $14.765 .02

Jan 1st  3rd payment                                     $13.333. 33c                            

1860    Thomas Carter  paid of this

            amount                                          $7000

            + gave a note to A D Kelly + Co

            for an advancement of                   $3.333   .33c

[the following line is written sideways down the left column of the page with a large bracket around the next two entries]

Loaned by Robt Carter by a draft of W Jackson + Co N O.[18] to both of $3.000

            Thomas H Carter paid of this

            amount                                        $1,500

            William P Carter paid of this

            amount                                       $1,500___________

                                                                           $13,333.33

            To sum up the several amounts

            invested up to this date

   By     Thomas Carter                           $15.777.  25

   “       Thomas H. Carter                      $6.706  08   +$5.400 [last number written in pencil]

   “       William P. Carter                          5.615  02

   [first part written in pencil] 33.49835     $28.098 . 35

                                                                   5.400 [written in pencil]

[page 8]

            Of this $28.098.35  $1694.19 was

            taken from the portions of Thomas

            H. Carter + William P. Carter

            to pay the expenses of transporting

            the negroes + other incidental

            expenses in settling them  includ-

            -ing a deposit of $565.12 with

            A. D. Kelly by William P. Carter.

            By subtracting this $1694.19 from

            the whole amount $28.098.35  the

            actual amount invested in

            land is   –                      $26.404.16

            Of this Thomas Carter

            has invested in land  –  $15.777.25

            which is all the money

            yet advanced by him.

            Thomas H. Carter has

            invested in land            6.056.08

            William P. Carter has

            invested in land            4.570.83

                                                26.40416

It will be seen from the above account

that William + myself have paid all

the expenses of transporting the negroes

of my father. In them we have no

interest + this sum of $1694.19 is now

due us by him.

            Of the $1694.19

            Thomas H Carter paid       $650.00

            William P. Carter   “            479.07

            Placed on deposit by

            William P. Carter at

            A. D. Kelly + Co                565.12

            Whole amount by William $104419

[page 9]

            Thomas H Carter              $650.00

            William P. Carter               $1044.19

                                                     $16.94.19

            Thos H. Carter   $12.106.08 [written in pencil lower on page]


[1] Thomas Henry Carter (1831-1908), “Account book, 1859-1888,” [464] p., unpaginated bound volume originally kept at “Pampatike,” King William County, Virginia, Mss5:3 C2468:1; Virginia Museum of History and Culture (VMHC), Richmond, Virginia. Thomas Henry Carter descended from the famous or infamous Robert “King” Carter (1663–1732), one of the largest landowners and enslavers in the early 1700s in the Colony of Virginia. Thomas was educated at the Virginia Military Institute (VMI), the University of Virginia (UVA), as well as Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia. At the onset of the Civil War in 1861, he joined the Confederacy as a captain of an artillery unit. By the end of the war, he rose to the rank of colonel. Thomas H. Carter spent the postwar years managing his plantation. He also was a railroad commissioner for the state of Virginia and Proctor of UVA.

[2] Susan E. Roy is Susan Elizabeth Roy (1833–1902). She was born in Mathews County, Virginia at the Roy family plantation named Green Plains. Her parents were Anne Seddon (1808–1834) and William Henry Roy (1800–1859). She married Thomas Henry Carter in 1855.

[3] Ann S. Roy is Ann Seddon Roy (1831–1908), sister of Susan E. Roy. Ann married John Coles Rutherfoord and they lived in Goochland County, Virginia.

[4] It seems like all of the enslaved people sent to Louisiana were owned by Thomas Nelson Carter, the father. That makes me wonder what the exact financial arrangement was when his son, Thomas Henry Carter, lived there.

[5] Pampatike was a Carter plantation in King William County, Virginia. Thomas Henry Carter, his wife, and children lived there for many years. Thomas Nelson Carter also lived there prior, however, I am not sure when. Pampatike is located along the Pamunkey River, northeast of Richmond. Today, it is still a functioning farm although it is not still owned by the Carter family. The farm is on private property. For more information about the history of the land and farm, see: http://www.pampatike.org/

[6] The elder Carter sent seventeen enslaved people from Clarke County in the northern part of Virginia. My best educated guess is that these people came from Annefield, which was the Carter plantation in Clarke County where this branch of the Carters lived. For more information on this property, see the Virginia Department of Historic Resources webpage on Annefield: https://www.dhr.virginia.gov/historic-registers/021-0002/ 

[7] Thomas Nelson Carter (1800–1883) rarely used his middle name in documents. His parents were Mary Nelson (1774–1803) and Robert Carter (abt 1771–1805). Thomas first married Juliet Muse Gaines (1806–1831) and one of their sons being Thomas Henry Carter. After Juliet died, Thomas married Anne Willing Page (1815–1891) in 1835. One of their sons was William Pleasants Page Carter.

[8] William Pleasants Page Carter (1836–1913), son of Thomas Nelson Carter and half-brother of Thomas Henry Carter. For a time, William was in the same artillery unit as his half-brother. Fold3 (https://www.fold3.com/image/20/8401344 : viewed 17 September 2021), William P Carter (Capt. W. P. Carter’s Co., Light Artillery), Civil War Service Records (CMSR) – Confederate – Virginia. William was captured in May 1864 and would eventually be one of the “Immortal 600” Confederate POWs. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immortal_Six_Hundred .

[9] Possibly Malcolm Thomas Morrison (1831–aft 1900?). See: Bruce Gunn, “Gunn, George, Margaret, 09-18-2016,” Ancestry (https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/27811013/person/27581235463/facts : viewed 17 September 2021), Malcom Thomas “M.T.” Morrison -B1831/D aft 1900 – HINDS CO MS – son of Angus Morrison1797 and Catherine Watts- m Fannie Wyche [yes, this is really all in the name field].

[10] The land was probably in Madison County, Louisiana, based on newspaper advertisements for land for sale placed by M T Morrison “Land for Sale,” Vicksburg Daily Whig, 04 March 1858, page 2, col. 5; Newspapers.com (https://www.newspapers.com/image/228525393 : viewed 17 September 2021).

[11] Throughout the account book, periods and commas are used interchangeably when showing amounts of money.

[12] Edwin Wortham & Co. was a “Richmond grocer and commission merchant [company who] acted as an agent for the Carters in the purchase and sale of insurance, farm produce, and livestock.” Kenneth M. Stampp, ed., A Guide to the Microfilm Edition of RECORDS OF ANTE-BELLUM SOUTHERN PLANTATIONS FROM THE REVOLUTION THROUGH THE CIVIL WAR Selections from The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Library, The Shirley Plantation Collection, 1650-1888, Series K, (University Publications of America: Bethesda, Maryland, 1993), 4; LexisNexis (http://www.lexisnexis.com/documents/academic/upa_cis/2462_AnteBellSouthPlanSerK.pdf : viewed 17 September 2021).

[13] I am not exactly sure what Baker Bros & Co did as an organization, although it apparently changed over the years.

[14] Probably Robert Carter (1827–1911), son of Thomas Nelson Carter and brother of Thomas Henry Carter. Robert Carter would later become a doctor and move to Philadelphia.

[15] As of 17 September 2021, no ship manifests have been located to record the journey of the forty enslaved persons sent to Louisiana from Virginia.

[16] Probably Alexander D Kelly (abt 1806–1870). “Alexander D Kelly obituary,” Times-Democrat (New Orleans, LA) 18 January 1870, page 6, col. 2; Newspapers.com (https://www.newspapers.com/image/226607810 : viewed 17 September 2021). This obituary states Mr. Kelly was from Fauquier County, Virginia, so this might be the possible connection to the Carter family.  

[17] Possibly John Wickham (1825–1902), who married Thomas Henry Carter’s first cousin, Elizabeth Hill Carter, on 29 November 1859 at Shirley Plantation in Charles City County, Virginia.

[18] Possibly Jackson & Co, which made machinery for the Confederates. Confederate States of America, War Department, Proceedings of the Court of Inquiry, Relative to the Fall of New Orleans (United States: R. M. Smith, public printer, 1864) 114; Google Books (https://www.google.com/books/edition/Proceedings_of_the_Court_of_Inquiry_Rela/pLoTAAAAYAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=0 : viewed 17 September 2021).

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R. Ross Roby – WWII Conscientious Objector #52Ancestors : Week 1

My paternal grandfather, Rochester Ross Roby (1914–2002), was always a man of strong principles. He was raised Episcopalian in Rochester, Monroe County, New York, in an upper middle-class family. After graduating from an elite private school and Yale University, Ross (he hated the name Rochester), set out to make something of his life. He spoke out against the war in Europe and declared himself a pacifist and conscientious objector before the U.S. entered WWII.[1] Little did my grandfather know that his experiences as a conscientious objector during the war would lead him into his life’s work.

R. Ross Roby – Yale University Graduation Photo, 1937

During the war, the United States gave conscientious objectors who were drafted an alternative option for service instead of putting them under the military’s direction. Nearly 12,000 men and women chose Civilian Public Service (CPS). Under this program, these conscientious objectors, including my grandfather, were assigned to a camp and a work project of national importance. Sometime in 1943, my grandfather was sent to Philadelphia and the Philadelphia State Hospital at Byberry. The Civilian Public Service would become known for its groundbreaking work in the field of mental health. Ross was assigned to be an orderly in a men’s ward of the psychiatric hospital.[2]

While working as an orderly in what must have been unspeakable conditions for both himself and the patients, Ross decided to pursue a medical degree at the University of Pennsylvania. Since he worked long days at the hospital, he had to take evening courses. Consequently, he had to endure a long commute on public transportation from one end of Philadelphia to the other (Philadelphia State Hospital was at the far northeastern corner of Philadelphia and the University of Pennsylvania is in West Philadelphia). There was something about seeing the horrors at the state hospital that made Ross want to help people with mental illnesses, beyond what he could do as an orderly.

It was in one of Ross’s night courses when fate intervened. Since he worked all day and traveled over an hour to get to class, he was exhausted by the time class started. Sometimes he fell asleep in class. A fellow student, Juliet Carter Dulany, offered to share her notes to help him pass the class. Less than a year later, on 22 June 1946, they were married. My grandparents, Ross and Juliet, were married for over 55 years and had four children, including my father.

Civilian Public Service workers were required to stay in the program as long as two years after WWII ended in 1945. My grandfather was one of the workers at Philadelphia State Hospital who went on strike to protest the length of their required service. Eventually, the CPS workers won, and in 1947 their service to the country ended.[3]

My grandfather finished medical school and settled down with his new family in Philadelphia. Because of his experiences as a conscientious objector at Philadelphia State Hospital, Ross wanted to make a meaningful contribution to the field of mental health. He would go on to a distinguished career as a child psychiatrist.

Ross joined the Society of Friends (Quakers) soon after the war. He remained very active with his local meeting in Germantown. He was involved with many organizations to support the pacifist and peace movement. His passion for the movement remained high until his death in 2002.

Even though my grandfather was not a typical veteran, he very much served his country during WWII. While it is always important to remember and honor our military veterans, do not forget the men and women behind the scenes. Conscientious objectors do not believe in war, but they still love their country. Ross started his service during the war years and continued to serve throughout the rest of his life. That’s how I remember him.

It was my grandfather who spurred my interest in history and genealogy. Ross spent decades researching his and my grandmother’s family histories. He became a member of the Genealogical Society of Pennsylvania (GSP) in 1968. I joined the Board of Directors of that same organization in March 2019. I sometimes think about my grandfather as I’m driving in to the GSP office. A few blocks before I get there, I pass the spot along Roosevelt Blvd. where the Philadelphia State Hospital used to stand.


[1] “Pacifist Asks Peace Moves,” Democrat and Chronicle (Rochester, New York), 03 Nov 1941, p. 14, col. 3; image copy, Newspapers.com (https://www.newspapers.com/image/136192437/ : accessed 31 December 2020), Newspapers.com Publishers Extra.

[2] Mennonite Central Committee, “CPS Worker 008626 – Roby, Rochester Ross,” Civilian Public Service (http://civilianpublicservice.org/workers/8626 : accessed 31 December 2020), entry for Rochester Ross Roby.

[3] Mennonite Central Committee, Civilian Public Service (http://civilianpublicservice.org/ : accessed 31 December 2020).

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52 Ancestors in 52 Weeks Challenge

I believe it was Amy Johnson Crow who started the 52 Ancestors in 52 Weeks Challenge on her website a number of years ago. Since starting this blog, I have done a poor job of keeping up with it, so I’m hoping this challenge will help me with my goal of posting weekly.

If you have a blog, or any means of posting something about your ancestors, I encourage you to take the challenge with me in 2021. I look forward to reading others’ posts, and sharing my ancestors with you throughout the coming year.

Happy New Year!!!

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Power in the Names

In honor of Juneteenth, here are the names of the human beings enslaved by my Dulany ancestors 160 years ago. Most likely, my 3rd great grandmother, Ida Powell Dulany wrote these names into the family bible around 1860. I hope all these 79 people found their freedom. My goal is to continue with my research on the enslaved people at Oakley. Stay tuned!

“Oakley servants”[1]

Old Tom

Old Reed

Old Daniel

Old Polly

Billy Peters

Eliza Peters

Louisa

Otway

Horace Peters

Patzey Peters

Harriet

Billy

Julia Peters

Richard Peters

Emily

Sanford

Matilda

Caroline

– – – [Unknown]

Maria

Talbot

Louisa

Ann

Henry

Eliza

Armistead

Wilmouth

Josephine

Monimia

Alfred

Tom

Tulip

Rebecca

Eli

Letty

Selina

John

Reed

Uriah

– – – [Unknown]

Rosetta

Lizzie

Georgeanna

Elias

Jimmy

Sarah

Susan

George

Andrew

Tommy

Polly

Richard

George

Edmond

Otway

Alfred

Ben

Rebecca

Dan

Nora

Rachel

Walton

Horace

Willis

Page

Jerome

Billy

Lucinda

Sims

Phil

Johnny

Simon

Ralph

Margaret

Beck

Edmonia

Job

Mary

Harriet

[1] Dulany Family Bible Records, 1855-1985. The Holy Bible. Privately held by the Dulany family, [ADDRESS FOR PRIVATE USE], Virginia, 2019. Ida refers to enslaved people as “servants” in all her writings. It was very common in the South, and somewhat in the North when slavery was prevalent, for people to refer to slaves as servants.

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Happy Anniversary

An 165 year old wedding gift leads to a whole new chapter in my research.

 

One hundred and sixty-five years ago today, one of my sixteen pairs of (soon-to-be) 3x great-grandparents married in northern Virginia. Okay, big deal, right? If every genealogist went back and wrote about all their ancestors’ wedding anniversaries, there wouldn’t be time for much else. What makes this one special, in my opinion, is a certain wedding gift which has survived despite the horrors of war and the ravages of time.

 

Rev. O. A. Kinsolving performed the wedding ceremony for Henry Grafton “Hal” Dulany and Mary Eliza “Ida” Powell on 06 Jun 1855, probably in Middleburg, Loudoun County, Virginia. There are only a couple of sources which documented this fact at the time and are still extant.[1] One of these sources is the Dulany family bible. An inscription is still visible on one of the first blank pages. It reads:

 

Henry and Ida Dulany

from their friends

Wm B and C P Cochran

June 6th 1855[2]

 

This simple inscription is evidence for the bible being a wedding gift. Dr. William Bailey Cochran and Catherine Powell Cochran were more than just casual friends, at least in my estimation. To receive such a wonderful, and probably expensive gift such as a family bible must have meant that the young couple meant something to the Cochrans. In addition, Catherine Powell Cochran and Mary Eliza Powell Dulany were first cousins. Mary’s father and Catherine’s mother were brother and sister. According to the 1850 U.S. Federal Census, the Cochran family only lived a few doors down from the Powells in Middleburg, Loudoun County, Virginia.[3]

 

As with most family bibles, there are birth, marriage, and death dates of the family written in the blank pages. In the middle of the bible, there are pages marked “Family Record” at the top. I can say that my birth is one of the last entries in the bible (my sister didn’t make it in!). However, what shocked me when I first saw this bible last year was not my name, but two words at the top of two of the “Family Record” pages: “Oakley servants.”[4]

 

Beneath the headings on these pages are two columns of the names and birth years of 79 enslaved persons. The Dulanys owned “Oakley,” a plantation outside of Upperville, Fauquier County, Virginia. I believe this record of enslaved people was written in 1860 or shortly thereafter, based partly on the last birth date entered. Based on the handwriting and what I know about the plantation management during this time period, I believe Ida Powell Dulany wrote all of the names and dates into the bible herself. It is possible this was done, at least in part, because of the 1860 Slave Schedules.[5]

 

What makes this list even more genealogically valuable, is that a good number of the people are listed in family groups. For example, Ida Dulany (the assumed compiler) would list a mother and her birth year, then write “her children” and list them below with their birth years. Rarely would a father be listed, however. I don’t know if this was a choice on Ida’s part or Ida just didn’t know who the fathers were in most cases (or didn’t care).

 

This bible has survived despite being in Henry and Ida’s house during the Civil War. On more than one occasion, Union soldiers searched through the house for food and anything of value. Many items were taken from the house, but not the bible. Ida wrote a journal throughout most of the war. Only a small part of the original journal still exists today, but the bible remains.[6] The bible has been passed down by multiple generations. Perhaps because few knew of its existence is one reason why it has survived for so long.

 

I hope to write much more about the bible, but especially about the enslaved people of Oakley in the future. I would like to reach out to a few different people and organizations in Virginia to get their advice and possibly assistance before I proceed much further with this project.

 

Please leave a comment if you are interested in this topic or if you think you might have an ancestor in the area. You can also reach me on Twitter @2ManyAncestors.

 

 

[1] Due to the current COVID-19 pandemic, it is not possible to obtain images of the original marriage registers from Virginia. They do exist, however. This index will have to do in the meantime: Aurelia M. Jewell, compiler, Loudoun County, Virginia Marriage Records, 1751-1880 (Arlington, Virginia: n.p., 1959), 172; consulted as “Marriage records of Loudoun County, Virginia, 1751-1880,” browsable images, FamilySearch (https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3Q9M-CSM7-5H69?cat=301731 : accessed 6 June 2020), image 759 of 1102.

[2] Dulany Family Bible Records, 1855-1985. The Holy Bible. Privately held by the Dulany family, [ADDRESS FOR PRIVATE USE], Virginia, 2019.

[3] 1850 U.S. census, Loudoun County, Virginia, population schedule, [“not stated” listed as jurisdiction], p. 445 (pen), p. 223 (stamped), dwelling 858, family 858, Eliza Parncee [Mary Eliza Powell]; image, Ancestry.com (https://www.ancestry.com : accessed 6 Jun 2020), image 132 of 362. 1850 U.S. census, Loudoun County, Virginia, population schedule, [“not stated” listed as jurisdiction], dwelling 868, family 668 [sic?], Wm Cochran; image, Ancestry.com (https://www.ancestry.com : accessed 6 Jun 2020), image 133 of 362.

[4] Ida refers to enslaved people as “servants” in all her writings. It was very common in the South, and somewhat in the North when slavery was prevalent, for people to refer to slaves as servants.

[5] 1860 U.S. census, Fauquier County, Virginia, slave schedule, Northeastern Revenue District and District 9, p. 12 (copy), Henry G Dulany, owner or manager; image, Ancestry.com (https://www.ancestry.com : accessed 6 Jun 2020), image 6 and 7 of 10. By my count, the Dulanys owned 69 human beings according to this record. This does not account for any slaves which were hired out to others in the area.

[6] Mary L. Mackall, Stevan F. Meserve, and Anne Mackall Sasscer, editors, In the Shadow of the Enemy: The Civil War Journal of Ida Powell Dulany (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2010), 174. The one remaining piece of Ida’s original journal is on loan at the Virginia Historical Society in Richmond. Many of Oakley’s slaves, and some from the surrounding plantations, are mentioned in her journal.