On Tuesday, October 25, 2022 at 1pm Eastern, I will be the guest of the Afro-American Historical Society of Fauquier County, Virginia (AAHA) for their monthly series, “AAHA Virtual Genealogy & Local History.” I will be discussing my research project entitled, “Enslaved at Oakley & Beyond.” No registration required. The direct Zoom link can be found here: https://www.aahafauquier.org/events-2.
My 3x great-grandparents, Mary Eliza “Ida” Powell and Henry Grafton “Hal” Dulany, owned a plantation called Oakley in Fauquier County, Virginia starting in the 1850s. From then until the end of the Civil War, my ancestors enslaved dozens of men, women, and children there. The goals of this project are to trace everyone who was enslaved, find their ancestors, and their descendants. I have been and will continue to share my research with any living descendants and the communites in and around Fauquier County, Virginia.
I have already written a few blog posts about my Dulany ancestors and the people they enslaved. Please see those posts for more information. Of course, I hope to see you virtually on Oct. 25 so you can hear all about this project and the people connected with it. If you miss the live event, you can watch the video on AAHA’s YouTube channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCX_TLihoYqd4-ErUQYxvuOw.
If you have read some of my other blog posts, you know that I am interested in giving a voice to the people enslaved by my ancestors. I have the advantage of either already having family papers or easily locating manuscript collections dealing with my ancestors since I know their names an where they lived. The tough part sometimes is finding the pieces of paper that list enslaved people by name. Before the pandemic in 2019, I found a source related to some of my Carter ancestors in Virginia, which lists enslaved people by name and connects them to a specific time and place.
In July 2019, I spent a few days researching in the library of the Virginia Museum of History & Culture (VMHC), formerly the Virginia Historical Society, in Richmond, Virginia. To maximize my time, I took digital photos of the items I requested, thinking I would go through the photos at a later date. Two years later…I still haven’t read through most of them, but I remembered that a plantation account book of one of my Carter ancestors had tons of great genealogical information on the enslaved and formerly enslaved who worked on the plantation. It is very possible that many of the names and relationships in this account book cannot be found in other records. I wanted to share some of the photos I took of the account book, but due to copyright, I am not allowed to publish them here without paying VHMC a small fortune. So, I did the next best thing and I have started to transcribe the account book. This blog post is the first step.
Thomas Henry Carter (1831–1908), one of my paternal third-great-grandfathers, owned Pampatike, a plantation in King William County, Virginia. Pampatike is located along the Pamunkey River, northeast of Richmond. The library at the VMHC has his account book, as well as many other Carter family papers. According to the account book, Thomas H. Carter, his half-brother, William Page Carter (1836–1913), and their father, Thomas Nelson Carter (1800–1883), decided to invest in land in Louisiana in the late 1850s. Of course, large tracts of land in the South means there will most likely be enslaved people used as the labor force. The Carters sent forty enslaved people to Louisiana from two different plantations in Virginia. As you will see below, twenty-three people were sent south from the plantation in King William County. The elder Carter sent seventeen enslaved people from Clarke County in the northern part of Virginia. My best educated guess, without further research, is that these seventeen people came from Annefield, which was a Carter plantation in Clarke County where this branch of the Carters lived during this time period.
The following is a transcription (exact copy) of the first few pages of the account book (excluding a couple torn pages with scribbles and notes dating from the 1880s):
Partial Transcription of Thomas Henry Carter’s Account Book
[the following line is written sideways down the left column of the page with a large bracket around the next two entries]
Loaned by Robt Carter by a draft of W Jackson + Co N O. to both of $3.000
Thomas H Carter paid of this
William P Carter paid of this
To sum up the several amounts
invested up to this date
By Thomas Carter $15.777. 25
“ Thomas H. Carter $6.706 08 +$5.400 [last number written in pencil]
“ William P. Carter 5.615 02
[first part written in pencil] 33.49835 $28.098 . 35
5.400 [written in pencil]
Of this $28.098.35 $1694.19 was
taken from the portions of Thomas
H. Carter + William P. Carter
to pay the expenses of transporting
the negroes + other incidental
expenses in settling them includ-
-ing a deposit of $565.12 with
A. D. Kelly by William P. Carter.
By subtracting this $1694.19 from
the whole amount $28.098.35 the
actual amount invested in
land is – $26.404.16
Of this Thomas Carter
has invested in land – $15.777.25
which is all the money
yet advanced by him.
Thomas H. Carter has
invested in land 6.056.08
William P. Carter has
invested in land 4.570.83
It will be seen from the above account
that William + myself have paid all
the expenses of transporting the negroes
of my father. In them we have no
interest + this sum of $1694.19 is now
due us by him.
Of the $1694.19
Thomas H Carter paid $650.00
William P. Carter “ 479.07
Placed on deposit by
William P. Carter at
A. D. Kelly + Co 565.12
Whole amount by William $104419
Thomas H Carter $650.00
William P. Carter $1044.19
Thos H. Carter $12.106.08 [written in pencil lower on page]
 Thomas Henry Carter (1831-1908), “Account book, 1859-1888,”  p., unpaginated bound volume originally kept at “Pampatike,” King William County, Virginia, Mss5:3 C2468:1; Virginia Museum of History and Culture (VMHC), Richmond, Virginia. Thomas Henry Carter descended from the famous or infamous Robert “King” Carter (1663–1732), one of the largest landowners and enslavers in the early 1700s in the Colony of Virginia. Thomas was educated at the Virginia Military Institute (VMI), the University of Virginia (UVA), as well as Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia. At the onset of the Civil War in 1861, he joined the Confederacy as a captain of an artillery unit. By the end of the war, he rose to the rank of colonel. Thomas H. Carter spent the postwar years managing his plantation. He also was a railroad commissioner for the state of Virginia and Proctor of UVA.
 Susan E. Roy is Susan Elizabeth Roy (1833–1902). She was born in Mathews County, Virginia at the Roy family plantation named Green Plains. Her parents were Anne Seddon (1808–1834) and William Henry Roy (1800–1859). She married Thomas Henry Carter in 1855.
 Ann S. Roy is Ann Seddon Roy (1831–1908), sister of Susan E. Roy. Ann married John Coles Rutherfoord and they lived in Goochland County, Virginia.
 It seems like all of the enslaved people sent to Louisiana were owned by Thomas Nelson Carter, the father. That makes me wonder what the exact financial arrangement was when his son, Thomas Henry Carter, lived there.
 Pampatike was a Carter plantation in King William County, Virginia. Thomas Henry Carter, his wife, and children lived there for many years. Thomas Nelson Carter also lived there prior, however, I am not sure when. Pampatike is located along the Pamunkey River, northeast of Richmond. Today, it is still a functioning farm although it is not still owned by the Carter family. The farm is on private property. For more information about the history of the land and farm, see: http://www.pampatike.org/
 The elder Carter sent seventeen enslaved people from Clarke County in the northern part of Virginia. My best educated guess is that these people came from Annefield, which was the Carter plantation in Clarke County where this branch of the Carters lived. For more information on this property, see the Virginia Department of Historic Resources webpage on Annefield: https://www.dhr.virginia.gov/historic-registers/021-0002/
 Thomas Nelson Carter (1800–1883) rarely used his middle name in documents. His parents were Mary Nelson (1774–1803) and Robert Carter (abt 1771–1805). Thomas first married Juliet Muse Gaines (1806–1831) and one of their sons being Thomas Henry Carter. After Juliet died, Thomas married Anne Willing Page (1815–1891) in 1835. One of their sons was William Pleasants Page Carter.
 William Pleasants Page Carter (1836–1913), son of Thomas Nelson Carter and half-brother of Thomas Henry Carter. For a time, William was in the same artillery unit as his half-brother. Fold3 (https://www.fold3.com/image/20/8401344 : viewed 17 September 2021), William P Carter (Capt. W. P. Carter’s Co., Light Artillery), Civil War Service Records (CMSR) – Confederate – Virginia. William was captured in May 1864 and would eventually be one of the “Immortal 600” Confederate POWs. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immortal_Six_Hundred .
 The land was probably in Madison County, Louisiana, based on newspaper advertisements for land for sale placed by M T Morrison “Land for Sale,” Vicksburg Daily Whig, 04 March 1858, page 2, col. 5; Newspapers.com (https://www.newspapers.com/image/228525393 : viewed 17 September 2021).
 Throughout the account book, periods and commas are used interchangeably when showing amounts of money.
 Edwin Wortham & Co. was a “Richmond grocer and commission merchant [company who] acted as an agent for the Carters in the purchase and sale of insurance, farm produce, and livestock.” Kenneth M. Stampp, ed., A Guide to the Microfilm Edition of RECORDS OF ANTE-BELLUM SOUTHERN PLANTATIONS FROM THE REVOLUTION THROUGH THE CIVIL WAR Selections from The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Library, The Shirley Plantation Collection, 1650-1888, Series K, (University Publications of America: Bethesda, Maryland, 1993), 4; LexisNexis (http://www.lexisnexis.com/documents/academic/upa_cis/2462_AnteBellSouthPlanSerK.pdf : viewed 17 September 2021).
 I am not exactly sure what Baker Bros & Co did as an organization, although it apparently changed over the years.
 Probably Robert Carter (1827–1911), son of Thomas Nelson Carter and brother of Thomas Henry Carter. Robert Carter would later become a doctor and move to Philadelphia.
 As of 17 September 2021, no ship manifests have been located to record the journey of the forty enslaved persons sent to Louisiana from Virginia.
 Probably Alexander D Kelly (abt 1806–1870). “Alexander D Kelly obituary,” Times-Democrat (New Orleans, LA) 18 January 1870, page 6, col. 2; Newspapers.com (https://www.newspapers.com/image/226607810 : viewed 17 September 2021). This obituary states Mr. Kelly was from Fauquier County, Virginia, so this might be the possible connection to the Carter family.
 Possibly John Wickham (1825–1902), who married Thomas Henry Carter’s first cousin, Elizabeth Hill Carter, on 29 November 1859 at Shirley Plantation in Charles City County, Virginia.
My paternal grandfather, Rochester Ross Roby (1914–2002), was always a man of strong principles. He was raised Episcopalian in Rochester, Monroe County, New York, in an upper middle-class family. After graduating from an elite private school and Yale University, Ross (he hated the name Rochester), set out to make something of his life. He spoke out against the war in Europe and declared himself a pacifist and conscientious objector before the U.S. entered WWII. Little did my grandfather know that his experiences as a conscientious objector during the war would lead him into his life’s work.
During the war, the United States gave conscientious objectors who were drafted an alternative option for service instead of putting them under the military’s direction. Nearly 12,000 men and women chose Civilian Public Service (CPS). Under this program, these conscientious objectors, including my grandfather, were assigned to a camp and a work project of national importance. Sometime in 1943, my grandfather was sent to Philadelphia and the Philadelphia State Hospital at Byberry. The Civilian Public Service would become known for its groundbreaking work in the field of mental health. Ross was assigned to be an orderly in a men’s ward of the psychiatric hospital.
While working as an orderly in what must have been unspeakable conditions for both himself and the patients, Ross decided to pursue a medical degree at the University of Pennsylvania. Since he worked long days at the hospital, he had to take evening courses. Consequently, he had to endure a long commute on public transportation from one end of Philadelphia to the other (Philadelphia State Hospital was at the far northeastern corner of Philadelphia and the University of Pennsylvania is in West Philadelphia). There was something about seeing the horrors at the state hospital that made Ross want to help people with mental illnesses, beyond what he could do as an orderly.
It was in one of Ross’s night courses when fate intervened. Since he worked all day and traveled over an hour to get to class, he was exhausted by the time class started. Sometimes he fell asleep in class. A fellow student, Juliet Carter Dulany, offered to share her notes to help him pass the class. Less than a year later, on 22 June 1946, they were married. My grandparents, Ross and Juliet, were married for over 55 years and had four children, including my father.
Civilian Public Service workers were required to stay in the program as long as two years after WWII ended in 1945. My grandfather was one of the workers at Philadelphia State Hospital who went on strike to protest the length of their required service. Eventually, the CPS workers won, and in 1947 their service to the country ended.
My grandfather finished medical school and settled down with his new family in Philadelphia. Because of his experiences as a conscientious objector at Philadelphia State Hospital, Ross wanted to make a meaningful contribution to the field of mental health. He would go on to a distinguished career as a child psychiatrist.
Ross joined the Society of Friends (Quakers) soon after the war. He remained very active with his local meeting in Germantown. He was involved with many organizations to support the pacifist and peace movement. His passion for the movement remained high until his death in 2002.
Even though my grandfather was not a typical veteran, he very much served his country during WWII. While it is always important to remember and honor our military veterans, do not forget the men and women behind the scenes. Conscientious objectors do not believe in war, but they still love their country. Ross started his service during the war years and continued to serve throughout the rest of his life. That’s how I remember him.
It was my grandfather who spurred my interest in history and genealogy. Ross spent decades researching his and my grandmother’s family histories. He became a member of the Genealogical Society of Pennsylvania (GSP) in 1968. I joined the Board of Directors of that same organization in March 2019. I sometimes think about my grandfather as I’m driving in to the GSP office. A few blocks before I get there, I pass the spot along Roosevelt Blvd. where the Philadelphia State Hospital used to stand.
 “Pacifist Asks Peace Moves,” Democrat and Chronicle (Rochester, New York), 03 Nov 1941, p. 14, col. 3; image copy, Newspapers.com (https://www.newspapers.com/image/136192437/ : accessed 31 December 2020), Newspapers.com Publishers Extra.
In honor of Juneteenth, here are the names of the human beings enslaved by my Dulany ancestors 160 years ago. Most likely, my 3rd great grandmother, Ida Powell Dulany wrote these names into the family bible around 1860. I hope all these 79 people found their freedom. My goal is to continue with my research on the enslaved people at Oakley. Stay tuned!
 Dulany Family Bible Records, 1855-1985. The Holy Bible. Privately held by the Dulany family, [ADDRESS FOR PRIVATE USE], Virginia, 2019. Ida refers to enslaved people as “servants” in all her writings. It was very common in the South, and somewhat in the North when slavery was prevalent, for people to refer to slaves as servants.
An 165 year old wedding gift leads to a whole new chapter in my research.
One hundred and sixty-five years ago today, one of my sixteen pairs of (soon-to-be) 3x great-grandparents married in northern Virginia. Okay, big deal, right? If every genealogist went back and wrote about all their ancestors’ wedding anniversaries, there wouldn’t be time for much else. What makes this one special, in my opinion, is a certain wedding gift which has survived despite the horrors of war and the ravages of time.
Rev. O. A. Kinsolving performed the wedding ceremony for Henry Grafton “Hal” Dulany and Mary Eliza “Ida” Powell on 06 Jun 1855, probably in Middleburg, Loudoun County, Virginia. There are only a couple of sources which documented this fact at the time and are still extant. One of these sources is the Dulany family bible. An inscription is still visible on one of the first blank pages. It reads:
This simple inscription is evidence for the bible being a wedding gift. Dr. William Bailey Cochran and Catherine Powell Cochran were more than just casual friends, at least in my estimation. To receive such a wonderful, and probably expensive gift such as a family bible must have meant that the young couple meant something to the Cochrans. In addition, Catherine Powell Cochran and Mary Eliza Powell Dulany were first cousins. Mary’s father and Catherine’s mother were brother and sister. According to the 1850 U.S. Federal Census, the Cochran family only lived a few doors down from the Powells in Middleburg, Loudoun County, Virginia.
As with most family bibles, there are birth, marriage, and death dates of the family written in the blank pages. In the middle of the bible, there are pages marked “Family Record” at the top. I can say that my birth is one of the last entries in the bible (my sister didn’t make it in!). However, what shocked me when I first saw this bible last year was not my name, but two words at the top of two of the “Family Record” pages: “Oakley servants.”
Beneath the headings on these pages are two columns of the names and birth years of 79 enslaved persons. The Dulanys owned “Oakley,” a plantation outside of Upperville, Fauquier County, Virginia. I believe this record of enslaved people was written in 1860 or shortly thereafter, based partly on the last birth date entered. Based on the handwriting and what I know about the plantation management during this time period, I believe Ida Powell Dulany wrote all of the names and dates into the bible herself. It is possible this was done, at least in part, because of the 1860 Slave Schedules.
What makes this list even more genealogically valuable, is that a good number of the people are listed in family groups. For example, Ida Dulany (the assumed compiler) would list a mother and her birth year, then write “her children” and list them below with their birth years. Rarely would a father be listed, however. I don’t know if this was a choice on Ida’s part or Ida just didn’t know who the fathers were in most cases (or didn’t care).
This bible has survived despite being in Henry and Ida’s house during the Civil War. On more than one occasion, Union soldiers searched through the house for food and anything of value. Many items were taken from the house, but not the bible. Ida wrote a journal throughout most of the war. Only a small part of the original journal still exists today, but the bible remains. The bible has been passed down by multiple generations. Perhaps because few knew of its existence is one reason why it has survived for so long.
I hope to write much more about the bible, but especially about the enslaved people of Oakley in the future. I would like to reach out to a few different people and organizations in Virginia to get their advice and possibly assistance before I proceed much further with this project.
Please leave a comment if you are interested in this topic or if you think you might have an ancestor in the area. You can also reach me on Twitter @2ManyAncestors.
 Due to the current COVID-19 pandemic, it is not possible to obtain images of the original marriage registers from Virginia. They do exist, however. This index will have to do in the meantime: Aurelia M. Jewell, compiler, Loudoun County, Virginia Marriage Records, 1751-1880 (Arlington, Virginia: n.p., 1959), 172; consulted as “Marriage records of Loudoun County, Virginia, 1751-1880,” browsable images, FamilySearch (https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3Q9M-CSM7-5H69?cat=301731 : accessed 6 June 2020), image 759 of 1102.
 Dulany Family Bible Records, 1855-1985. The Holy Bible. Privately held by the Dulany family, [ADDRESS FOR PRIVATE USE], Virginia, 2019.
 1850 U.S. census, Loudoun County, Virginia, population schedule, [“not stated” listed as jurisdiction], p. 445 (pen), p. 223 (stamped), dwelling 858, family 858, Eliza Parncee [Mary Eliza Powell]; image, Ancestry.com (https://www.ancestry.com : accessed 6 Jun 2020), image 132 of 362. 1850 U.S. census, Loudoun County, Virginia, population schedule, [“not stated” listed as jurisdiction], dwelling 868, family 668 [sic?], Wm Cochran; image, Ancestry.com (https://www.ancestry.com : accessed 6 Jun 2020), image 133 of 362.
 Ida refers to enslaved people as “servants” in all her writings. It was very common in the South, and somewhat in the North when slavery was prevalent, for people to refer to slaves as servants.
 1860 U.S. census, Fauquier County, Virginia, slave schedule, Northeastern Revenue District and District 9, p. 12 (copy), Henry G Dulany, owner or manager; image, Ancestry.com (https://www.ancestry.com : accessed 6 Jun 2020), image 6 and 7 of 10. By my count, the Dulanys owned 69 human beings according to this record. This does not account for any slaves which were hired out to others in the area.
 Mary L. Mackall, Stevan F. Meserve, and Anne Mackall Sasscer, editors, In the Shadow of the Enemy: The Civil War Journal of Ida Powell Dulany (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2010), 174. The one remaining piece of Ida’s original journal is on loan at the Virginia Historical Society in Richmond. Many of Oakley’s slaves, and some from the surrounding plantations, are mentioned in her journal.